On 9 January 2010, thousands of campaigners will gather around the world to call on world leaders to prevent a return to severe and widespread conflict in Sudan.
The effort comes one year before a referendum that will decide the future of Sudan, and falls on the five year anniversary of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement that called for the referendum.
2009 was the most violent year in the South of Sudan since the Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed, with over 2,500 people killed and 350,000 displaced.
In Darfur, the civilian population continues to bear the brunt of the conflict with more than 2.6 million individuals still living in camps for the internally displaced.
With the upcoming presidential and parliamentary elections in Sudan in April 2010 and the referendum on independence of South Sudan in 2011, there is a risk of increased violence and human rights violations.
Throughout 2009, there was a sharp increase in attacks against civilians in the South of Sudan, particularly in the disputed border areas between North and South Sudan and in Jonglei state.
Recent outbreaks of violence have reignited ethnic conflicts in the South, undermining the relative peace experienced since 2005, and placing civilians at risk of human rights abuses.
In Darfur, civilians continue to face insecurity on a daily basis and UNAMID still lacks equipment and strength to fully fulfil its mandate.
Amnesty International has called on the UN Security Council to ensure that UNAMID and UNMIS fulfil their civilian protection mandate by clearly defining their goals and priorities.
Amnesty International has also called on member states of the UN Security Council to provide the two forces with the equipment and support they need to effectively fulfil their mandates.
Girl in Kalma IDP camp, South Darfur, Sudan © Evelyn Hockstein/Polaris