Executions of juveniles since 1990

The use of the death penalty for crimes committed by people younger than 18 is prohibited under international human rights law, yet some countries still execute child offenders. Such executions are few compared to the total number of executions in the world. Their significance goes beyond their number and calls into question the commitment of the executing states to respect international law.

Since 1990 Amnesty International has documented 90 executions of child offenders in 9 countries: China, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Iran, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, the USA and Yemen. Several of these countries have changed their laws to exclude the practice. Executions of child offenders represent a tiny fraction of the total of executions worldwide recorded by Amnesty International each year. The USA and Iran have each executed more child offenders than the other eight countries combined and Iran has now exceeded the USA's total since 1990 of 19 child executions.

The first table below gives statistics on executions of child offenders recorded by Amnesty International since 1990. The second table gives case details.

Recorded executions of child offenders since 1990: statistics

YearRecorded executions of child offendersTotal recorded executions worldwideCountries carrying out executions of child offenders (numbers of reported executions are shown in parentheses)
199022029Iran (1), USA (1)
199261708Iran (3), Pakistan (1), Saudi Arabia (1), USA (1)
199351831USA (4), Yemen (1)
199513276Iran (1)
199722607Nigeria (1), Pakistan (1)
199832258USA (3)
199921813Iran (1), USA (1)
200061457Congo (Democratic Republic) (1), Iran (1), USA (4)
200133048Iran (1), Pakistan (1), USA (1)
200231526USA (3)
200321146China (1), USA (1)
China (1), Iran (3)
2005102148Iran (8), Sudan (2)
200651591Iran (4), Pakistan (1)
2007141252Iran (11), Saudi Arabia (2), Yemen (1)
200882390Iran (8)
20097714, excluding ChinaIran (5), Saudi Arabia (2)
20101527, excluding ChinaIran (1)
20113676, excluding ChinaIran (3)
20121682, excluding ChinaYemen (1)
20133778, excluding ChinaSaudi Arabia (3)

Recorded executions of child offenders since 1990: case details

CountryName of prisonerAgeDate of execution
ChinaZhao Lin16 at time of offenceJanuary 2003
 Gao Pan16 or 17 at time of offence8 March 2004
Democratic Republic of CongoKasongo14 at time of execution15 January 2000
IranKazem Shirafkan17 at time of execution1990
 Three juvenilesOne aged 16, two aged 17 at time of execution29 September 1992
 Manuchehr Taherian16 at time of executionNovember 1995
 Ebrahim Qorbanzadeh17 at time of execution24 October 1999
 Jassem Ebrahimi17 at time of execution14 October 2000
 Mehrdad Yousefi16 at time of offence29 May 2001
 Mohammad Mohammadzadeh17 at time of offence25 January 2004
 Salman17 at time of offence12 May 2004
 Atefeh Rajabi Sahaaleh16 at time of execution15 August 2004
 Iman Farrokhi17 at time of offence19 January 2005
 Ali Safarpour Rajabi16 or 17 at time of offence13 July 2005
 Mahmoud Asghari15 or 16 at time of offence19 July 2005
 Ayaz Marhoni16 or 17 at time of offence19 July 2005
 Farshid Farighi14 to 16 at time of offences1 August 2005
 Name unknown17 at time of execution23 August 2005
 Name unknown17 at time of offence12 September 2005
 Rostam Tajik16 at time of offence10 December 2005
 Majid Segound (Sagvand)17 at time of execution13 May 2006
 Sattar17 at time of offenceSeptember 2006
 Morteza M16 at time of offence7 November 2006
 Naser Batmaniunder 18 at time of offenceDecember 2006
 Mohammad Mousawi16 at time of offence22 April 2007
 Sa'id Qanabar Zahi17 at time of execution27 May 2007
 Mohammad Pezhman (Pejman)Under 18 at time of offence29 May 2007
 Amir AsgariUnder 18 at time of offence10 October 2007
 Hossein Gharabaghloo16 at time of offence17 October 2007
 Babak Rahimi17 at time of execution17 October 2007
 Two juvenilesUnder 18 at time of offenceOctober 2007
 Mohamad Reza Tork16 at time of offence15 November 2007
 Makwan Moloudzadeh13 at time of offence4 December 2007
 Amir Hoshang Fazlollahzadehunder 18 at time of offence31 December 2007
 Javad Shojaee16 at time of offence26 February 2008
 Mohammad Hassanzadeh16 or 17 at time of execution10 June 2008
 Hasan MozafariUnder 18 at time of offence22 July 2008
 Rahman ShahidiUnder 18 at time of offence22 July 2008
 Reza Hejazi15 at the time of the offence19 August 2008
 Behnam Zare15 at the time of the offence26 August 2008
 Gholamreza H17 at the time of the offence29 October 2008
 Ahmad Zare17 at the time of the offence30 December 2008
 Mola Gol Hassan17 at the time of the offence21 January 2009
 Delara Darabi17 at the time of the offence1 May 2009
 Ali Jafari17 at the time of the offence20 May 2009
 Behnoud Shojaee17 at the time of the offence11 October 2009
 Mosleh Zamani17 at the time of the offence17 December 2009
 Mohammad A.17 at the time of the offence10 July 2010
 Two juveniles, A.N. and H.B.17 at the time of the offence20 April 2011
 Ali Reza Molla Soltani17 at time of execution21 September 2011
NigeriaChiebore Onuoha15 at time of offence, 17 at time of execution31 July 1997
PakistanOne juvenile17 at time of execution15 November 1992
 Shamun Masih14 at time of offence30 September 1997
 Ali Sher13 at time of offence3 November 2001
 Mutabar Khan16 at time of offence13 June 2006
Saudi ArabiaSadeq Mal-Allah17 when sentenced to death3 September 1992
 Dhahian Rakan al-Sibai’I15 or 16 at time of offence21 July 2007
 Moeid bin Hussein Hakami16 at time of execution17 July 2007
 Sultan Bin Sulayman Bin Muslim al-Muwallad17 at the time of the offence10 May 2009
 'Issa bin Muhammad 'Umar Muhammad17 at the time of the offence10 May 2009
 Rizana Nafeek17 at the time of the offence9 Januarry 2013
 Ali bin Muhammad bin Hazam al-Shihri16 at the time of offence13 March 2013
 Sa’id bin Nasser bin Muhammad al-Shahrani17 at the time of the offence13 March 2013
SudanMohammed Jamal Gesmallah16 at time of offence31 August 2005
 Imad Ali Abdullah17 at time of offence31 August 2005
USADalton Prejean17 at time of offence18 May 1990
 Johnny Garrett17 at time of offence11 February 1992
 Curtis Harris17 at time of offence1 July 1993
 Frederick Lashley17 at time of offence28 July 1993
 Christopher Burger17 at time of offence7 December 1993
 Ruben Cantu17 at time of offence24 August 1993
 Joseph John Cannon17 at time of offence22 April 1998
 Robert Anthony Carter17 at time of offence18 May 1998
 Dwayne Allen Wright17 at time of offence14 October 1998
 Sean Sellers16 at time of offence4 February 1999
 Steve Roach17 at time of offence10 January 2000
 Chris Thomas17 at time of offence13 January 2000
 Glen McGinnis17 at time of offence25 January 2000
 Gary Graham17 at time of offence22 June 2000
 Gerald Mitchell17 at time of offence22 October 2001
 Napolean Beazley17 at time of offence28 May 2002
 T.J. Jones17 at time of offence8 August 2002
 Toronto Patterson17 at time of offence28 August 2002
 Scott Allen Hain17 at time of offence3 April 2003
YemenNaseer Munir Nasser al'Kirbi13 at time of execution21 July 1993
 Adil Muhammad Saif al-Ma'amari16 at time of offenceFebruary 2007
 Fuad Ahmed Ali AbdullaUnder 18 at the time of the offence

21 January 2012