Nepal: Solidarity brings prospect of permanent peace
Nepal: Solidarity brings prospect of permanent peace
by Dikshya Thakuri (human rights correspondent at The Himalayan Times, an
English daily in Nepal)
The Nepalese people finally got an
"historic victory" after a nineteen-day mass movement for democracy that claimed
many lives. Having witnessed a decade-long armed conflict between the Communist
Party of Nepal (Maoist) and previous governments, the entire nation is now
holding its breath for the crisis to permanently resolve.
House of Representatives announced its Proclamation on a Parliamentary session
on 18 May, thereby acknowledging the people’s victory and stating that its
declaration was written with the blood of the martyrs who sacrificed their lives
in the movement. The Proclamation stripped the Monarchy of its executive power,
declared Nepal a secular state and brought the Royal Nepal Army (RNA), which was
enjoying unbridled freedom and emboldened by its direct affiliation with the
all-powerful palace, under the Parliament’s control. RNA is now called Nepal
Army and His Majesty’s Government of Nepal has been replaced by the Government
The Parliament also announced that there would be an election
to the Constituent Assembly, a key demand of the CPN (Maoist), who have been
waging a war for a decade now. The election to the Constituent Assembly is
expected to decide the fate of the monarchy depending on the people’s wishes --
whether they want a republican state or a democracy with a ceremonial monarch.
This particular step taken by the Parliament is of great significance, since the
Maoists have made no bones about getting rid of the Monarchy and going for a
republican state since their inception in February, 1996. The decade-long
conflict, also known as the "People’s War", has claimed over 13,000 lives in the
King Gyanendra dissolved the House of Representatives in May
2002 and assumed executive powers on 1 February, 2005, an action that further
deepened the country’s crisis and forced Nepal’s seven prominent political
parties and the Maoists to align against the King, whose rule history will
undoubtedly judge as a repressive one. Their 12-point agreement (a Roadmap for
peace and democracy), agreed on 22 November, 2005, played a crucial role in
their fight against what they described as autocracy.
Although ten years
of war is not a short time by any standards, the Maoists’ and seven political
parties’ willingness to give in to the people’s wishes could forecast a sound
political climate. However, the present political development was not an
overnight achievement, although the people’s movement for democracy forced King
Gyanendra to relinquish his direct rule on 24 April, 2006.
There was a
much bigger force than the seven political parties and the Maoists behind the
success of the movement for democracy. The nationwide strike from 6 to 9 April,
2006, led by the political parties and backed by the Maoists, which transformed
into a massive people’s movement, was just a part of the bigger picture.
Solidarity, at a critical juncture, among all factions of society --
from the civilians, civil society, media, judiciary, political parties, Maoists
and the international community’s pressure made the movement a success. However,
the movement was merely a catalyst for change. Awareness campaigns advocated by
the civil society, local and international human rights bodies and the media
helped educate people at the grassroots level about their rights.
similar note, the international community played a crucial role in exerting
pressure and criticism on both the previous governments and the Maoists for
human rights abuses such as extra-judicial killings, excessive use of torture,
abduction, illegal detentions and disappearances. The global community’s
pressure on the Royal regime during the movement was equally striking.
Subsequently, Nepalese people’s awareness of fundamental rights and human rights
consciousness during the insurgency played a key role in their fight for
justice, peace and freedom.
Thus, the collective roles of all sections
of society and the international community during the insurgency and the
movement cannot be undermined. Had it not been for their consolidated roles, the
awareness level among the people would have been negligible and the movement at
this stage would have been unthinkable.
Following the movement and the
revival of the House of Representatives, the government formed a Commission for
Inquiry headed by former justice of the Supreme Court Krishna Jung Rayamajhi to
probe human rights violations, abuses of power and misappropriation of state
funds by the former government functioning under the King Gyanendra’s regime.
The commission was formed to investigate abuses from February 2005 through April
2006 and make recommendations to the government to take appropriate legal action
against the violators.
On May 12, 2006, the government detained five
former ministers and suspended three security forces’ heads on allegations of
abuse of authority and excessive use of force and human rights violations to
suppress the movement. On 4 June, former Foreign Minister Ramesh Nath Pandey,
former Information and Communications State Minister Shrish Shumsher Rana and
former Assistant Health Minister Nikshya Shumsher Rana were released following a
Supreme Court order terming their arrests illegal. The two others detained --
former Home Minister Kamal Thapa and former Local Development Minister Tanka
Dhakal -- filed habeas corpus petitions before the Supreme Court on 5
June challenging the legality of their detention.
however, came under flak for the preventive detention of former ministers. The
international community including international rights watchdogs came down
heavily on the government for following in the footsteps of the Royal regime by
using the Public Security Act to keep political opponents in preventive
Heads of security bodies who were suspended from service
include former Inspector General of the Nepal Police Shyam Bhakta Thapa, former
Inspector General of the Armed Police Force Sahabir Thapa, and former National
Investigation Department head Devi Ram Sharma. Surprisingly, the government has
not taken any action against the Nepalese Army Chief Pyar Jung Thapa who is
still enjoying his tenure.
As a mark of tribute, 21 people who lost
their lives during political demonstrations this year were officially declared
martyrs on 4 June 2006. This gesture has been well received in
However, there are many challenges lying ahead. The government of
Nepal, Parliament, Maoists and civil society -- all have a task in hand to
maintain the equilibrium and take the country to a new direction. The road to
success does not end with stripping King Gyanendra of his power, empowering the
Parliament, removing the "terrorist" tag from the Maoists, announcing the much
demanded election to the Constituent Assembly and declaring Nepal a secular
state. It lies in the new government's ability to capitalise on the ripe
political climate, a window of opportunity, available now. Much needs to be done
and the country has a long way to go.
The declaration of truce by both
the government and Maoists and the ongoing peace talks have been welcomed by all
concerned. The outcome of the first round of peace talks held on May 26 was the
25-point code of conduct signed by government negotiation team leader and Home
Minister Krishna P Sitaula and Coordinator of the Maoist negotiation team
Krishna Bahadur Mahara.
Allowing national and international teams to
monitor the ceasefire, cessation of armed activities and hostilities during
ceasefire, a pledge to publish the whereabouts of those who have “disappeared”
and to release political detainees are some of the key elements of the
On the other hand, the Maoists have strongly been demanding the
dissolution of Parliament and the formation of an interim government. Their
argument is that the House of Representatives neither enjoys the people’s
current mandate nor does it represent a majority of those who made the movement
successful. Maoist leadership Prachanda’s warning that the conflict will
intensify if the House is not dissolved should not be ignored. However, his
stance that his party does not even want to think about the failed peace process
and his optimism concerning the negotiations reflect the Maoists’ commitment for
Nepal could indeed set an example to all the war-ravaged
countries throughout the world if both the parties collectively end the war and
make their Roadmap for peace and stability a success. All are hopeful that the
much talked peace process will not crumble like the failed peace talks in 2001
Permanent peace in Nepal, once a far fetched dream, cannot be
brushed aside going by the recent turn of events. Everybody, including the
international community, had been demanding an end to the decade-long conflict
in Nepal, but no one had expected that the efforts for peace by the civilians,
political parties and the Maoists would be so swift.
article was written by an outside contributor and does not necessarily
reflect Amnesty International views. Copyright remains that of the author who is
willing to allowfree republication in the media.