South Africa: Rural women the losers in HIV response
18 March 2008
Rural women living with HIV in circumstances of poverty in South Africa face discrimination in relationships and in communities because of their gender, HIV status and economic marginalization.
A new Amnesty International report based on interviews with rural women, the majority of them living with HIV, exposes the overwhelming challenges they face in the midst of the severe HIV epidemic affecting the country.
"Rural women in South Africa are disproportionately affected by poverty and unemployment," said Mary Rayner, Amnesty International's South Africa researcher.
"They continue to experience discriminatory attitudes and practices --
particularly from male partners – and live in an environment rife with high
levels of sexual and other gender-based violence."
Despite gradual improvements in the government's response to the HIV epidemic and the adoption of a widely-welcomed five-year plan, five and a half million South Africans are HIV-infected – one of the highest numbers in any country in the world. Fifty-five percent of them are women. South African women under 25 are between three and four times more likely to be HIV-infected than men in the same age group.
Many women interviewed by Amnesty International said that they were often unable to protect themselves against HIV infection because they felt at risk of violence when they suggested condom use.
One woman told Amnesty International that her husband, a truck driver, spent much of his time on the road. On his days off, he would visit her, but he refused to use condoms when she asked him. After he abandoned the family, she became sick and discovered at the local clinic that she was infected with HIV. She has no knowledge of her husband's health since he left the family.
Several other women interviewed by Amnesty International described being beaten and forced to have sex by husbands who actively refused to use condoms.
"Rural South African women's lives are scarred by persistent violence in their families, homes and in under-policed, unsafe communities," said Michelle Kagari, Deputy Director of AI's Africa Programme.
"The co-existence of epidemics of both HIV and violence against women has raised the costs of violence for South African women and girls – both physically and psychologically," said Kagari.
The majority of rural women interviewed by Amnesty International said that their male partners were reluctant to test for HIV or refused to be tested -- even when there were strong indications they might be HIV-infected. Many of the women faced abuse from their partners when they tried to access health services for HIV-related treatment and care.
Effective treatment for HIV and AIDS requires regular visits to hospitals and clinics and adequate daily food with which to take medication. Rural women living with HIV in poverty and unemployment face constant challenges in having regular access to food and often cannot afford transportation to health facilities accredited to provide treatment.
"Lack of physical access to treatment centres is tantamount to a denial
of access to health care services, and the government must take more
responsibility in ensuring this access," said Michelle Kagari.
Amnesty International's report offers specific recommendations to national and provincial authorities on how to tackle the challenges facing rural women living with HIV. It also makes recommendations to donor countries and institutions that support health initiatives in South Africa.
South Africa: ‘I am at the lowest end of all’. Rural women living with HIV face human rights abuses in South Africa
Date Published: 18 March 2008
Categories: South Africa