Annual Report 2013
The state of the world's human rights

3 August 2012

USA: Texas man due to be executed despite evidence of mental disability

USA: Texas man due to be executed despite evidence of mental disability
This would be the seventh execution in Texas this year, as the state heads for 500 executions in three decades.

This would be the seventh execution in Texas this year, as the state heads for 500 executions in three decades.

© AP GraphicsBank


While a majority of countries have stopped executing anyone, let alone people with mental disabilities, the USA continues to buck this global trend, with Texas all too often leading the way
Source: 
Rob Freer, Amnesty International’s USA Researcher
Date: 
Fri, 03/08/2012

The Texas authorities should commute the death sentence of a prisoner assessed as having a mental disability but facing execution in under a week, Amnesty International said today.

Marvin Wilson, a 54-year-old African American man, is due to be put to death by lethal injection on 7 August for a murder committed in 1992. A clinical neuropsychologist has concluded that he has “mental retardation”.

A decade ago, in Atkins v. Virginia, the US Supreme Court prohibited the execution of offenders with “mental retardation”, but left it up to the individual states as to how to comply with the ruling.

“While a majority of countries have stopped executing anyone, let alone people with mental disabilities, the USA continues to buck this global trend, with Texas all too often leading the way,” said Rob Freer, Amnesty International’s USA Researcher.

“And leaving it up to Texas how to comply with the Atkins ruling appears to have been something akin to leaving the fox in charge of the henhouse.”

Before the Atkins ruling, Texas executed more inmates diagnosed with “mental retardation” than any other state. A decade on, its legislature has yet to enact a law to comply with Atkins, and there are fears that “temporary” guidelines developed by the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals (TCCA) in 2004 are letting the state execute offenders who should be exempted from this punishment under the Constitution. 

In 2003, Wilson’s lawyers filed an “Atkins claim” to challenge the constitutionality of his death sentence. They presented the courts with the detailed conclusions of a court-appointed neuropsychologist with 22 years of clinical experience who assessed Wilson as meeting the criteria for mental retardation.

The state of Texas has presented no expert testimony to rebut that evidence, but state courts nonetheless rejected the Atkins claim applying the TCCA’s much-criticized guidelines. The federal courts, required under US law to give a high level of deference to state court rulings, upheld the denial. Wilson’s lawyers are seeking US Supreme Court intervention on his case and to have the Court examine what is going on in Texas on this issue.

The last federal court to rule on the case – the US Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in 2011 – acknowledged that “other fact-finders might reach a different conclusion as to whether Wilson is mentally retarded on the evidence” that had been presented before the state court.

“Surely that acknowledgement alone should make the Texas clemency authorities pause for thought,” said Freer.

“This is an irrevocable penalty and here is a federal court effectively saying that Wilson’s execution could be assessed as unconstitutional if put to another set of ‘fact-finders’. If nothing else, caution demands commutation.”

Amnesty International opposes the death penalty unconditionally in all cases. This is a cruel, unnecessary and dehumanizing punishment that in the USA is riddled with discrimination, inconsistency and error. 

This would be the seventh execution in Texas this year, as the state heads for its 500th execution since resuming judicial killing 30 years ago.

Nationwide, 1,301 people have been executed since the death penalty was reinstated in 1977, including 24 this year. Since resuming executions in December 1982, Texas accounts for 483, or more than a third, of the total.

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