Arbitrary arrests and illegal detentions, as well as torture, attacks against human rights defenders, journalists and trade unionists increased. Rape and other violence against women and girls were widespread. Forced evictions continued in the capital N’Djamena. Members of the Chadian security forces and armed groups responsible for human rights abuses were not held to account, while victims were left without assistance.
Legislative and presidential elections were organized in February and April respectively. The presidential elections were boycotted by the opposition. President Déby was re-elected and appointed a new government in August.
Thousands of Chadians returned from Libya following the escalation of violence there. More than 280,000 refugees from Darfur, Sudan, and around 130,000 internally displaced Chadians were still living in camps in eastern Chad. UNHCR, the UN refugee agency, discussed with Chad and Sudan the possibility of a voluntary return of refugees to Sudan. At least 68,000 refugees, mostly from the Central African Republic, continued to live in refugee camps in southern Chad.
Thousands of Chadian soldiers remained deployed near the town of Goré on the border with the Central African Republic, where they had been since December 2010.Top of page
Rape and other violence against women and girls continued to be widespread in various parts of Chad. Internally displaced Chadians, as well as refugees and local women and some children, were among the victims. Not all cases were reported, for reasons including fear of reprisals from perpetrators who were often members of their communities, armed groups or security forces. Those responsible mostly acted with impunity.
On 15 June, Chad and the UN signed an Action Plan on children associated with armed forces and groups in Chad, to end the recruitment and use of child soldiers. At the end of the year, it was not clear whether implementation of the Action Plan had started.Top of page
Prison conditions were harsh and amounted to cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment. Detention facilities were overcrowded and prisoners often had no access to adequate health services and other basic facilities. Many of the prisoners were sick and malnourished.Top of page
The police, the gendarmerie and members of the National Security Agency (Agence Nationale de Sécurité, ANS) regularly tortured suspects, sometimes with the involvement of local administrative authorities.
People continued to be arrested and detained without charge by ANS members, and in some cases were prevented from receiving visits from family members, doctors or lawyers. Others were detained by the police and gendarmerie for civil matters, contrary to provisions of the Chadian Constitution and laws.
Human rights defenders continued to face intimidation and harassment by government officials, particularly those in remote areas in eastern and southern Chad.
Thousands of demonstrators, including magistrates, teachers and health workers, protested peacefully in N’Djamena in October and November against low salaries and increasing prices of food and fuel. People were arrested and beaten and others detained following the demonstrations.Top of page
Trade unionists were subjected to harassment and arbitrary arrest.
Forced evictions which had begun in 2008 continued in N’Djamena, affecting hundreds of people whose homes were destroyed. Evictions were conducted without due process, adequate notice or consultation. Those who lost their homes did not receive alternative housing or other form of compensation despite some court orders. Most of the sites from which residents were forcibly evicted remained unoccupied at the end of the year. The N’Djamena municipal authorities announced further eviction plans, particularly affecting those living in the Sabangali and Gassi 3 and 4 areas of the capital.Top of page
Although the AU had stated since 2006 that former Chadian President Hissène Habré should be tried in Senegal “on behalf of Africa”, this failed to take place. In July the Commission of the AU identified Rwanda as “the country most suitable to be entrusted with the Hissène Habré trial”. This followed the meeting of the Assembly of Heads of States and Governments of the AU that urged Senegal to expedite the trial of Hissène Habré or extradite him to another country willing to do so. Human rights organizations, Chadian victims and their lawyers stated their preference for the trial to take place in Belgium, which had investigated the case and charged Hissène Habré with serious violations of international human rights and humanitarian law, and made an extradition request to Senegal in 2005, reiterated in November. The Chadian government publicly supported this option. In November, the UN Committee against Torture called on Senegal to comply with its obligation to prosecute or extradite Hissène Habré.Top of page
Chadian officials and members of armed groups responsible for serious human rights violations, including unlawful killings, rape and other torture, continued to act with impunity.